Category Archives: Politics

The wonder of YOU

I have posted two articles with this title– all in reference to my dear wife.

This time, I am using the same title with reference to someone else. Not another woman, though. But a group of young ministers who do not cease to amaze, if not amuse, me. The series of reflections on the EDSA Revolution Anniversary last month and the resurgence of heated discussion on facebook group related to the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches (CPBC) and Convention Baptist Ministers Association (CBMA) have influenced my decision to feature this group on my blog.

In the Philippine history of struggles for change, after the euphoria of EDSA Revolution, there was resurgence of some unrest. Both political and military enmity resumed once more in the Cory government. A group of young military officers emerged looking for a coherent ideology. Using anti-American rhetoric, they claimed to lead an underground movement to overthrow then President Corazon Aquino and the system she represented. They were known as the Young Officers Union (YOU).

BGen. Danilo Lim, one of the founders of Young Officers Union

 Their shadowy existence raised speculations. Some dismissed them as public relations creation of the better-known Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM). At that time RAM’s image appeared to be tarnished because of links to discredited politicians. Others claimed the group broke with the famed Gregorio Honasan and other movement leaders for their indecisiveness and close alliance with opposition politicians. Some even believed YOU has adopted the organizational structure of the outlawed Communist Party of the Philippines as manifested in their activities and even press statements alluding to “American imperialism” and the Aquino “puppet regime“.

In 1989, they captured national spotlight when staging a nine-day siege of the Makati business district. Since then they were taken seriously to the extent of offering a bounty for the arrest of seven renegade officers identified as YOU leaders.

In my article on movement for change in the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches (CPBC), I made mentioned about the progressive pastors and seminarians in 1980’s who participated in the struggle against dictatorship, some made alliances with lay leaders that wanted changes in the CPBC. Also a group of seminarians in Panay in 2000 who staged a protest for some reform in their institution. Of course,  there may be others before or after them. Then emerged the movement of young ministers in Negros who dared to challenge the status quo perpetuated by influential ruling group. In 2006, they showed their consolidated strength by daring to challenge the veteran leadership in Negros and foretasted success when they captured the leadership in Kasapulanan.

They called themselves Young Overseers Union (YOU) with immortalized slogan “Go for Change.” In varying degrees, they have sustained their movement and made their presence felt, most often, causing discomforts to those who want to perpetuate the status quo. Their battle cry for change continue to disturb the leadership.

Covenant Signing?

Some members of YOU dsiplay their manifesto
Photo Credit: YOU Forum

While some veterans dismissed them as neophytes, other conservative leaders considered them trouble makers. However, they serve as inspiration to those who also want change. I came to know them through their former leader who was once a close friend of mine.

If my memory serves me right, they started as a Community Learning Group that meets regularly for fellowship, study, prayer and support system. But their political experience in the 2006 Kasapulanan election and subsequent CPBC election have strengthened their resolve and honed their skills in organizing. Even the betrayal and abandonment of their former leader and allies, and attempts to isolate them including threats and harassment did not deter their commitment to change. They remain undaunted,strong and productive At times, they appeared to be irreverent but the issues they raised are relevant.

Young Overseers Union

Plans over cups of coffee
Photo Credit: YOU Forum

One of my unforgettable encounters with them was during the CBMA – Negros Assembly at the Remitio Memorial Chapel, Convention Baptist Bible College, Bacolod City. Inspired by the overwhelming support to my leadership and subsequent development in the CBMA, I started to advocate, at that time, for a moratorium on pastors’ involvement in the CPBC politics which I felt should be left to our lay leaders. We were really determined to make the association soar to heights apart from CPBC.

However, during the open forum, they confronted me with harsh realities and problems in the CPBC and how pastors are used and abused by the lay in the leadership. In the course of discussion, a statement coming from them kept on ringing in my ears related to the lose of trust and confidence on the CPBC leadership. I said to myself, my God, what would happen to the CPBC if this trend continues.

Waiting for the group?

The looks that cause discomfort to some
Photo Credit: YOU Forum

Admittedly, that encounter has changed my direction and since then served as a reminder to me to carry on the principled stance, and not succumb to both pressures and enticement in the course of leadership and service. Thereafter, we shared many things in common, especially  in advocacy for change and development. Although, at times, we differ in approaches. In a way, they have ignited my  idealism and my pre EDSA commitment and courage as change advocate.  Of course, I suffered the consequences of going against the tide in the CPBC politics. Especially, when I dared to frustrate the plan/ scheme of the ruling group to perpetuate their control. I earned their brunt and had a foretaste of crude retaliation and extent of influence, manipulation and maneuver. But the members of YOU in respective areas neutralized their actions and parried some blows saving me from fatal hit.

To the young ministers, thank you for  the challenge, vigilance and idealism that made me stay grounded in principle till the end of my term. Thanks, too, for your support. Don’t lose YOUr wonder. The following lines are for YOU. YOU are in the position to lead the movement for change in our institutions and organizations.

When everyone seems to understand me
When everything I do gains support
You pose a challenge and raise endless questions 
You test my principle and conviction 
And you’re always there to call for change
In everything you do
That’s the wonder
The wonder of you

And when you confront me with the problem in our Convention
You give me reasons to change my direction 
Your commitment for change is worth a fortune
You inspire me to carry on
And you’re always there to lend a hand
When the going gets rough and tough
That’s the wonder
The wonder of you


Article first published  as The Wonder of You:3rd edition  on Padayon Katipan. The author is in the process of transferring posts from other blogs to  converge on this official website.


Networking: A development strategy

My fondness for the concept of networking began while conducting a study on the subject as development strategy of non-government organizations (NGOs) for my Master of Social Work thesis in the University of the Philippines- Diliman. Since then I have internalized the learnings and live with it in my whatever development endeavors I engage in.

Networking has been used by development workers and organizers as a strategy to strengthen their ranks especially during the times they were faced with the problem of either co-optation or reprisal from the government and other traditional power holders that want to maintain the status quo. Moreover, they have to deal with the proliferation of pseudo NGOs that undermine the sector’s credibility. Set up to take advantage of funding sources for dubious or narrow purposes, they are fly- by- night organizations.

Faced with such problems and threats to their credibility, NGOs have seen the need to establish linkages and networks among themselves and with other sectors of society. Melgrito (1994) has defined networking as coordination among people, groups or organizations of various interests and orientation, working together as in a chain so as to function in a specific manner. It takes place when organizations link up together and make concerted efforts for mutual advantage and greater effectiveness towards the achievement of a common goal.

As a strategy, networking has been used by many sectors in pursuing development endeavors. Networks link local efforts for more effective lobbying and advocacy and provide venues for the exchange of experiences and resources between similar NGOs. A proper coordination of NGO activities, in networking, helps prevent unnecessary duplication or overlapping of development effort. NGOs are also protected from any form of threat because of their collective nature, while they police their own ranks through common code of conduct.

In the Philippines, NGOs have reached the highest level of unity in networking during the launching of the Caucus of Development NGOs (CODE NGOs) in 1990. This solidarity, however, did not happen overnight. It was a culmination of decades of common struggle similar to what other NGOs in other countries experienced in the course of historical development characterized by diverse intensity and highlights.

It is interesting to note the participation of our pastors and churches in networking in the Philippines. Historical record shows the National Council of Churches in the Philippines (NCCP) and the Ecumenical Center for Development (ECD) were among the pioneers in the formation of CODE NGOs. Alegre (1996), in his book Trends and Traditions; Challenges and Choice, acknowledged the significant role of pastors and churches during the Coping with Repression, Carving a Niche (1972-1978) stage in the history.

This is the time when the late President Marcos used a hard line stance to establish a New Society. Subsequently, the NGO community was included in a systematic crack down on opposition groups. All legal attempts at organizing for popular empowerment were paralyzed. NGOs responded to the situation in various ways. While some went underground to wage armed struggle, others were either coopted or forced to lie low. After an initial wave of repression, those that did not join the underground movement continued with their commitment through institutional work, which eventually came to be known as NGO work.

Three significant developments in the networking took place during this period. In 1974, the National Council of Churches in the Philippines (NCCP) came together and adopted a statement defining the priorities and strategies of the development work of the church and its related organization. This development resulted to the formation of a body similar to NASSA- the Commission on Development and Social Concerns. Four years after, as an offshoot of the split of PECCO, a fellowship of pastors and lay workers to assist churches in development efforts was organized into a network known as the Ecumenical Center for Development (ECD).

The united effort of Philippine NGOs evolved from relief and reconstruction work to welfare activities geared toward anti- communist inspired social reform. Affected by the social context, which witnessed worldwide questioning of development approach, Philippine NGOs found themselves doing grassroots organizing for transformation. Such approach, however, faced a momentary halt when confronted by a repressive regime that used an iron-fist policy in dealing with oppositions.

Overcoming the threat, NGOs became instrumental in the qualitative growth of the organized mass movement, which culminated in the EDSA phenomenon. Thereafter, NGOs have maintained their legitimacy and prominence in Philippine society. The gains of networking in the national scene inspired the NGOs to translate it to the regional and provincial level.

On Placards and Strained Voices

Guest blog post by Dazen Dawn P. Lariza*

Article first published  on Central Echo, October 2012 edition.

Under the striking heat of the burning sun they stand clothed in sweat-drenched fabric and glistening faces that speak of courage and anger. With fists held high, they fight oppression, not with grenades and bombs and nuclear weapons but with their right to be loud, their right to be heard, their right to be free etched in placards and streamers that cry “CHANGE” and “JUSTICE.”

Activism has become the reason for enlightenment in many dark periods in our history such as Martial Law. As the government resulted to all sorts of actions in order to suppress their freedom, a new revolution was created through groups of Filipinos, especially students, who fought for their rights. The death of thousands created a ripple of events that brought forth a peaceful war of words and prayers which ended the dictator’s reign, hence, the reason why student activism still prevails in our present society.

Some may wonder why students choose to become activists and do things that may be considered “acts of rebellion.” Well, you’d have to think like an activist and learn to sympathize with what they fight for in order to understand what they do. Oikos Ecological Movement and League of Filipino Students (LFS) member Jan Pachoco didn’t understand the reason why student activists resulted to such actions until he got to know them and the reason behind their actions and eventually decided to join in the crowd.

Actually at first, when I see activists on the streets I wonder why they do such things and why they question and blame the government for all the crises faced by our society. But when I got to know them, my mind was opened to the sad realities they see,” he said.

The life of being a student activist is not an easy road. People misjudge you; your time has to be divided, and you have to keep secrets from people close to you if they turn against you and your beliefs. Student activists have far greater issues than picking an outfit for College Night of leveling up your character on League of Legends.

According to Jan, being a student activist has its demands. One of which is sacrificing time to study the different issues which confront the present generation. “We cannot make a concrete analysis and solution to the problems if we do not know the issue,” he said, adding that such a sacrifice is not a big deal because “if we were truly committed to the principles we would not hesitate to sacrifice a little for the good of every Filipino.”

Aside from that comes the pressure of some parents on their children to stop involving themselves in student activism. Jan said it is the greatest issue most of his colleagues have to face. They have to make their parents and families understand that such actions are note merely for their own good but also for the family. With this, Jan quoted a line from Renato Constantino saying, “If parents of today do not march with the youth, they will be left behind and will deserve only the censure of history. If the youth fail to enlist the active participation of other sectors of society, their movement will suffer from a fatal distortion.

Other than those stated above, student activists have to face the watchful eyes of their own Universities’ administrations especially on those coming from the LFS who oppose tuition fee increases and the likes. Various administrations such as those in the University of the Philippines take extra effort in trying to get rid of them.

In a statement posted on in December 7, 2010 by then UP Aterisk member Dino Pineda, he had said “We thought we were dying. We thought student activism had gone down the slope, and had become irreconcilably ‘uncool’ for the generation.” Dino stated actions which their administration did to silence them and their efforts in fighting against this. He ended his statement with this line, “More and more, we are seeing how this Administration is trying to kill us. Yes, we are dying. But we are not dying without a fight.”

Contrary to what others believe in, their efforts in fighting for social change are not useless. From rallies, State of the Youth Addresses, writing in print to spray painting stencils of a hangman tied to a yellow noose and more, these student activists may not always get what they want but their voices and opinions do get heard a lot. Through thousands of students marching against budget cuts on Education, a raise on budget happened. According to Jan, the Anti-No Permit, No Exam Policy bill is already being recognized by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the latest protest against the Cybercrime Law has been issued a Temporary Restraining Order (TRO). So who’s to say that their screams of rage go to waste?

Yes. They are often a common sight. You find them in clusters on streets, government centers, and business firms screaming out their rebellion, fighting for what they believe is right in an unjust society. Whether they be frowned upon by society or be understood by those who sympathize with what they feel, they wouldn’t really care, because activism is not meant to be understood by people who remain ignorant to what they believe in. Activism is meant for those who feel the need to be heard by a society that remains deaf to those who cry for freedom and equality. Activism is for those who believe that freedom is not an option.

Freedom is a gift. Fight for it.


*Dazen Dawn is News Editor of Central Echo. She is 2nd year BS Psychology student of Central Philippine University, Iloilo City, Philippines.

The Significance of Jesus Sufferings (Part II)

The beauty and completeness of the entire universe was marred by the wrong moral decision of supposedly crowning glory of God’s creation. Humanity missed the opportunity to live in paradise forever by willful disobedience. As such, the whole creation was transformed from the state of being very good to a situation where “the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now.“(Romans 8:22 ESV).

Published by Redemptivebooks Publishing, Iloilo City, Philippines. The author can be contacted through:

Humanly speaking, the Fall of man (and woman, too) has put God in a dilemma. How can He show His love to humankind without breaking His own rule? The prohibition was clear from the start including the consequent penalty. To borrow Atty. Edwin R. Catacutan’s argument in his book Creation, Fall and Redemption, “was there a way to remove the cup of death from man without God breaking His word?” By all indication, God’s enemy has the upper hand and might have been amused in watching how God resolve the issue. As ever consistent in His words and actions, God’s solution makes Jesus suffering absolutely significant.

As discussed in the previous blog, justice requires a redeemer to the sentenced humanity. Legally, angels are disqualified, having no physical body and subsequent death. As progeny of Adam already burdened with own death, nobody from the human race is qualified. Hence, no one can substitute for another, or for own self, despite willful act. Neither can any one force another to sacrifice for himself. Purchasing redemption is also a legal impossibility. For, as the author argues, with reference to the bible, “The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof, the world, and they that dwell therein.” (Psalm 24.1)

When all redemption procedures fail, grace is a necessity. In fact, it is the only redemptive option. Atty. Catacutan discussed a two-stage process in redemption by grace. The first is the payment, or justice –compliance stage. The second is the relationship-claiming stage wherein any one who wants to avail of the redeeming grace must claim his relationship to the Savior.

In the first stage, somebody who is qualified, and who can die, must do the substitute death sacrifice to comply with the justice requirement of God. The only option is a kinsman of the human race who is able and willing to do the job. A truly man, with flesh and blood not contaminated by sinful nature, who can truly experience death. The only mathematical solution is a virgin birth – child of a woman, begotten of the Holy Spirit. That way the offspring, while being man, can also be truly God who is able to perform task of redeemer. This is the significance of the incarnation as popularized by the Christmas story and the subsequent Passion and Resurrection narrative.

Paul, the apostle, has explicitly described the significance of Jesus sufferings in his letter to the Philippians: “In your relationships with one another, have the same mindset as Christ Jesus, who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be used to his own advantage; rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death— even death on a cross!

From the start, Jesus knows his role in the redemptive procedure. The Garden of Gethsemane, on the way to the cross, serves as venue of Jesus affirmation on his willingness to sacrifice as redeemer. There he wrestles with his humanity vis-a-vis the divine mandate. As recorded in the gospel, the scene in the garden portrays the last struggle. Jesus pours out his innermost thoughts and feelings to the Father. Reviewing the justice requirements and redemption scheme, he attempts to argue for other alternatives apart from the cup of suffering and death. In the end, he seals his commitment to undergo the last stage of redemption with this prayer: Nevertheless, your will be done, not mine.

Thereafter, the culmination of his suffering takes place. The cross is only part of the womb- to- the- tomb painful experiences of Jesus. Hence, the old rugged cross is not the only thing we must cherish and exchange someday with a crown. Our salvation is not the product of the suffering of Jesus just on the cross. It is the totality of the life of Jesus that exemplifies the love of God for humanity.

The significance of Jesus suffering

In the previous post we clarify that there is no virtue in suffering. Instead, suffering produces virtues. St. Paul, in his letter to the Romans, identifies some as perseverance, character, and hope. Those who have undergone suffering, as well as witnesses to the sufferings of others will surely agree with the claim. Stories of transformation in individuals and their significant others are innumerable to tell. My life-journey is now part of that package.

But what makes the significance of Jesus peculiar? The prophet Isaiah has already provided the answer long before this was first asked. “He was despised and rejected—a man of sorrows, acquainted with deepest grief. We turned our backs on him and looked the other way. He was despised, and we did not care. Yet it was our weaknesses he carried; it was our sorrows that weighed him down. And we thought his troubles were a punishment from God, a punishment for his own sins! But he was pierced for our rebellion, crushed for our sins. He was beaten so we could be whole. He was whipped so we could be healed.” (Isaiah 53).

A brother in faith and partner in development endeavors has a very clear and logical presentation of this redemptive process. Atty. Edwin R. Catacutan considers his book, Creation, Fall and Redemption, as a lawyer’s incursion into Christian Theology. In half- an- inch thick document, divided into 15 short chapters, the book capsulizes the story of the Bible. For him the bible is divided into two parts with highlight on the three significant cosmic events, i.e. the title of the book. These are the dominant thoughts of the Bible story. The first part (Creation and Fall) contains the reasons why the rest of the bible was written i.e. Redemption Procedure: Effects and Aftermath.

Published by Redemptivebooks Publishing, Iloilo City, Philippines. The author can be contacted through:

The Creation and Fall story was logically and dramatically described in the book. The author contends that with all the vastness of the universe and the complexities of the life forms on earth (and the uniqueness of man), it took God just the thirty verses of Chapter 1 of Genesis to describe His creative process. Man, as the crowning glory of God’s creation, makes the entire creation complete and very good. Yet, what took God thirty verses to create was spoiled by only one verse in Genesis 3:6. Ironically, the incident was a singular chance for man and woman to exercise their free choice to obey or disobey God.

Traditionally, this human debacle has been told with emphasis (or blame) on the woman’s frailties. But Atty. Catacutan, in his book, stresses man’s accountability for allowing the wrong arguments to prevail when he knows what is right. As ever cunning, the enemy of God dealt with the woman who had not directly received from God the prohibition rule. The author contends that at the time God gave the command to Adam in Genesis 2:17, Eve was not yet created. Subsequently, she was swayed by deceptive arguments. Ironically, Adam never raised any objection to straighten the record and save the situation. Worst, when he even partook of the forbidden fruit after being assured that nothing bad happened to his partner’s experiment. The burden of guilt therefore falls on the man. For the author, Adam intentionally disobeyed as the command not to eat was given only to him by God. Eve was simply deceived as she never directly received the prohibition.

Logically, the fall of humanity has put God in a dilemma. How can He show His love to humankind without breaking His own rule? This is what makes Jesus suffering significant. As a justice requirement, there needs to be a redeemer to the sentenced humanity. Legally, angels are disqualified, having no physical body and subsequent death. As progeny of Adam already burdened with own death, nobody from the human race is qualified. Hence, no one can substitute for another, or for own self, despite willful act. Neither can any one force another to sacrifice for himself. Purchasing redemption is also a legal impossibility. For, as the author argues, with reference to the bible, “The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof, the world, and they that dwell therein.” (Psalm 24.1)

(To be continued)

Reliving the spirit of EDSA

This article should have been posted few days after the 26th EDSA Anniversary, had it not been affected by my hectic schedule. Although quite late, as intended, still it has timeless relevance.

Last month’s celebration of EDSA Revolution seemed to lack the cohesive element which typically characterized the people power legacy. Rather it was highlighted with exchanges of innuendos from unofficial representatives of major players in anti dictatorship struggle, reflecting a divided nation. We find on one side the President, a son of two symbols of EDSA, in his relentless drive to get rid of perceived blocks in his matuwid na daan platform specifying one in the judiciary. Rallying his call were some militant groups leaders indicating “a new type of people power” against impeached Chief Justice.

On the other hand, outspoken archbishop emeritus Oscar Cruz warned that President Aquino could himself be the subject of a “people power” revolt. Stressing the role of the Church in previous People Power movements, Cruz, in a phone interview reported in the, warned the president of his downfall “if he continued to offend churches and religious faiths.”

Meanwhile, another militant group made snide remarks on President Aquino’s Edsa anniversary speech as nothing but a rehash of his previous “daang matuwid” (straight path) rhetoric. Pointing out lapses on the government in addressing the pre EDSA Revolution issues, the group was not optimistic with the present leadership. Still they joined the commemoration of EDSA Anniversary as it represents the unfulfilled Filipino people’s dreams and aspirations.

Indeed, for years, the question persists whether the spirit of EDSA is still alive after the unprecedented phenomenon more than two and a half decades ago. More so, with the present skirmishes and political bickering in various branches of our government.

I believe the spirit of EDSA is alive. But it is overshadowed by bigotry and exclusivism that try to domesticate the encompassing spirit of truth, struggle for change and advocacy for development. The over arching and encompassing spirit of EDSA mystery cannot and will never be domesticated. No person nor group can domesticate the EDSA Revolution. Even the so called EDSA heroes cannot claim exclusive right to the historical and mystical event in the Philippines. For the spirit of EDSA is inclusive. It is above all and encircles all.

I love to relate the beauty of EDSA Revolution with the systems theory which was used as framework in my thesis on Networking as a Development Strategy. The key concepts of the systems theory are wholeness, relationship, and homeostasis. Wholeness implies that the product of interaction by the elements within the system is greater than the additive sums of the separate parts. The concept of relationship asserts the importance of the pattern and structure of elements in the system, equally important as the elements themselves. Homeostasis suggests that most living systems seek a balance to maintain and preserve the system.

The systems theory focuses on communication patterns and the transactions and relationships among parts. As pointed out by Hartman (1970), the relationship among parts and the whole are of prime interest when considering the structure of a social system. This relationship is relatively stable. Sometimes, the relationship between systems is referred to as network.

The beauty of systems theory is represented by the rainbow. While there are only three primary colors (red, yellow, blue) there is a multiplication of colors when these link, interact, and overlap. Try to separate one from the other, and the beauty of rainbow is gone.

So with EDSA. It is a culmination of respective struggles participated in by the basic masses who since time immemorial always take the lead as they are ones affected. Then comes various sectors of diverse orientation, status, political and ideological leanings, colors and shapes. Youth, professionals, church people, businessmen and women, government officials, military and others. All have contributed their share in shaping the Philippine history. Try to isolate one, and the beauty of the event is gone.

Movement for change and development in any field of endeavor is often hampered by bigotry and exclusivism. Essential issues are sidetracked or left behind to give way to the struggle for supremacy misled by an illusion that one has the sole reservoir of truth and best approach in any given situation. It is only when one realizes the need to link with each other that the beauty of unity in diversity is seen like that of the rainbow.

EDSA Revolution: An Unspoiled Mystery

The mystery of EDSA Revolution remains unspoiled, not completely unfolded.

More than two decades have passed, the mystery of EDSA has not been fully unfolded. Analysts from various socio-political persuasions attempted to explain the event. Some had to come up with new concepts as EDSA Revolution departed from any of the standard categories.

While new testimonies from living participants came out every year, they just shed light to understand the pattern of events and contributing factors. But the mystery still remains. EDSA bloodless Revolution defied logic.

For how can one explains this phenomenon: “When guns and tanks of a dictator melted before the flowers held out by priests and nuns, by millionaires’ sons and squatters’ daughters, by ordinary men and women and by young and old alike; when… a new day was ushered in by ordinary Filipino common tao who rose to heroic heights that won the admiration of the whole world…” The quoted description was that of Jorge Lorredo, Jr. in his article Four Days that changed History published in Bulletin Today, as cited by Douglas J. Elwood in his book, Philippine Revolution 1986.

The hand of God was there…” was the explanation of the late Dr. Quintin Doromal, former PCCG commissioner & president of Siliman University. Quoted by his friend Douglas Elwood in the aforementioned book, Doromal was a witness to the event, having joined his old friend Fidel V. Ramos at Camp Crame and stayed there with him throughout those critical anxious hours. A noted Ilonggo leader, Dr. Doromal is a son of a Distinguished Centralian, Atty. Rosario Salas-Doromal.

Indeed, God acts through people, as surely as he speaks through people, and that he uses the sometimes complex interconnection of human forces to serve his larger purposes….”